Balsam Medium Recipe

Yet Another painting medium from my collection… Interesting combination

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Six Maroger Medium Recipies

Note of Caution: I do NOT recommend making Maroger mediums. They are very toxic to make!

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2 Glazing Medium Recipes

Recipes for Glaze Mediums

Some typical recipes for glaze mediums are as follows [the first one gives good results for all-round purposes and is in wide use]:

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Darwin #4 Medium

INGREDIENTS BY VOLUME

4 Parts – Venice Turpentine
2 Parts – Pure Un-bleached Bees Wax
6 Parts – Rectified Turpentine
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Place the bees wax pellets together with Venice Turpentine in a bain-marie over medium heat. Allow the wax to melt and blend with the balsam. Remove from the heat. Now gently and slowly start pouring the turpentine until all ingredients are perfectly blended. Do not over-heat the Venice Turpentine, heat just enough to melt the wax.

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Darwin #3 Medium

INGREDIENTS BY VOLUME

1 Part -Raw Cold Pressed Linseed
4 Parts – Venice Turpentine
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Mix the 2 ingredients together at room temperature. If using Venice Turpentine, warm it in a bain-marie prior to mixing. This recipe makes a fairly thick medium, which you can thin with turpentine for a leaner medium.

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Darwin #2 Medium

Ingredients By Volume:

1 Part – Stand Oil
1 Part – Venice Turpentine
1 Part – Rectified Turpentine

If you are using Strasbourg Turpentine, combine it with the oil first and then add the turpentine, combining all the ingredients well together. If using Venice Turpentine, it needs to be warmed in a bain-marie prior to mixing with the oil, because it is too viscous at room temperature. Then add turpentine.

Rectified Turpentine is preferred and is given in this recipe as a standard 1 part. You can use less or more than 1 part according to what your preference in regards to the consistency you want this medium to have. This heavily with turpentine for a lean medium. As given this medium is quite rich in fat and should only be used as such in the upper layers of the painting. Use up to 20% per volume of tube oil colours.

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Old Masters Medium III

Ingredients:

___________________

1 Part – Venice Larch Turpentine

2 Parts – Fresh Double Rectified Turpentine

___________________

· Warm the bottle/flask containing Larch Venice Turpentine in a bain-marie, until it becomes liquid and not viscous at all.

·Pour it in a bowl and put the bowl in the bain-marie you used to heat the Venice Turpentine.

·Now mix the Turpentine into the warm Venice Larch Turpentine. The two should react into a thin jelly medium.

· This medium must be applied warm, so keep the medium in the bain-marie as you paint.

About Old Masters Medium

Studies carried out by many academics and artists painters have produced several proposals for the ever interesting quest for the Old Masters Oil Painting Mediums. Of these, of course, some can be considered unlikely, but other authoritative studies should be taken into account.

Oils Studio made some trials on the probability of such mixes and arrived at some interesting oil painting mediums. The recipes presented here have been tested and the mediums have been prepared at room temperature. Some recipes were adapted to comply with easier preparation.

Drying
All 6 Old Masters oil painting mediums discussed should dry within a period of time between 12 hours and 3 days. Drying times depend enormously of the oil paints being used, atmospheric conditions and climate characteristics of the area where you live. You may use a drier to speed the drying process. However, the presence of balsam turpentines imparts a smooth flat glossy finish as the balsams flat out in the drying process. A shortened drying time may not be sufficient to allow the balsam to flatten out completely, so be careful to calculate how long you want the drying time to be.

Both driers below may be used safely in the ratio of 1% up to 5% calculated over the total volume of oil painting medium. To remain 100% safe, an average 3% should be used. Suppose one of the painting mediums above was prepared, making a total
_____________________________________
A drier or siccative may be used safely. We do not recommend cobalt siccatives because these tend to dry the surface leaving a softer under-layer. If you decide to use a drier, use a lead oxides based drier.
The French Manufacturer LeFranc & Bourgeois makes produces 2 distinct driers:

·Brown Courtrai Drier: Prepared with suspended manganese and lead oxides, it is the strongest siccative available. This siccative has gained some bad reputation in the past due to abuse from artists. Used in the recommended doses, it is perfectly safe to employ in oil painting.

·White Courtrai Drier: Prepared with suspended lead oxides, it is less powerful and due to its pale colour, it is to be preferred by many painters. Application rules applying to this siccative (illustrated above) are exactly the same as for Brown Courtrai Drier.
__________________________________
Both above driers speed up drying times considerably and help drying and stabilising the paint film from the inside out.

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Old Masters Medium I

Ingredients By Volume:

1 Part – Venice Turpentine or Strasbourg Turpentine

1 Part – Stand Oil or Sun-Thickened Linseed Oil

1 Part – Pure Gum Turpentine


· Mix Venice Turpentine with oil at room temperature, mix well until the two combine in an opaque thick homogeneous paste.

· Now combine into the above mix Turpentine, slowly and bit by bit until the right consistency is achieved. The above indicated quantity of turpentine (1 part) may be reduced or increased in order to achieve the preferred consistency.

About Old Masters Medium

Studies carried out by many academics and artists painters have produced several proposals for the ever interesting quest for the Old Masters Oil Painting Mediums. Of these, of course, some can be considered unlikely, but other authoritative studies should be taken into account.

Oils Studio made some trials on the probability of such mixes and arrived at some interesting oil painting mediums. The recipes presented here have been tested and the mediums have been prepared at room temperature. Some recipes were adapted to comply with easier preparation.

Drying
All 6 Old Masters oil painting mediums discussed should dry within a period of time between 12 hours and 3 days. Drying times depend enormously of the oil paints being used, atmospheric conditions and climate characteristics of the area where you live. You may use a drier to speed the drying process. However, the presence of balsam turpentines imparts a smooth flat glossy finish as the balsams flat out in the drying process. A shortened drying time may not be sufficient to allow the balsam to flatten out completely, so be careful to calculate how long you want the drying time to be.

Both driers below may be used safely in the ratio of 1% up to 5% calculated over the total volume of oil painting medium. To remain 100% safe, an average 3% should be used. Suppose one of the painting mediums above was prepared, making a total
_____________________________________
A drier or siccative may be used safely. We do not recommend cobalt siccatives because these tend to dry the surface leaving a softer under-layer. If you decide to use a drier, use a lead oxides based drier.
The French Manufacturer LeFranc & Bourgeois makes produces 2 distinct driers:

·Brown Courtrai Drier: Prepared with suspended manganese and lead oxides, it is the strongest siccative available. This siccative has gained some bad reputation in the past due to abuse from artists. Used in the recommended doses, it is perfectly safe to employ in oil painting.

·White Courtrai Drier: Prepared with suspended lead oxides, it is less powerful and due to its pale colour, it is to be preferred by many painters. Application rules applying to this siccative (illustrated above) are exactly the same as for Brown Courtrai Drier.
__________________________________
Both above driers speed up drying times considerably and help drying and stabilising the paint film from the inside out.

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Rubens Oil Painting Medium

One medium used by Rubens followed this recipe:

3 part Venice Turpentine
2 part Sun Thickened Walnut oil
1 part Mastic Varnish
with an added siccatif

(Today, one might freely create a similar recipe with Venice Turp., Sun-thickened linseed or Stand Oil, and Damar Varnish)

Due to the yellowing nature of oil and varnish and their effect upon highlights, the lights were given more force by comparison with darks. “The influence of the colour of the vehicle on the quantity and depth of shadow is, indeed, plainly to be traced in the general style of oil painting, as compared with tempera and other methods.”

If a fresh painting turns yellow or brown, placing it several times in the sun or in open air will exhaust the exudations which cause the yellowing of the surface. when pictures are safe from further change, then removal from the sun will preserve them. “…their protection from the sun’s rays, when there is no longer any ‘superfluity of oil’ to dissipate, is essential to their preservation.”

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Universal Painting Medium

Use it for both layering, and for glazing purposes. Use it in each and every layer that I apply.

1 part Linseed Oil
1 part Walnut Oil
1 part Venice Turpentine
2 parts Oil Of Spike

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