Basic Oil Painting Medium

This is one of the basic oil painting mediums recipe, there are a lot of variations of it. You can make more fluid with more turpentine in it.

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Darwin #4 Medium

INGREDIENTS BY VOLUME

4 Parts – Venice Turpentine
2 Parts – Pure Un-bleached Bees Wax
6 Parts – Rectified Turpentine
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Place the bees wax pellets together with Venice Turpentine in a bain-marie over medium heat. Allow the wax to melt and blend with the balsam. Remove from the heat. Now gently and slowly start pouring the turpentine until all ingredients are perfectly blended. Do not over-heat the Venice Turpentine, heat just enough to melt the wax.

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Darwin #2 Medium

Ingredients By Volume:

1 Part – Stand Oil
1 Part – Venice Turpentine
1 Part – Rectified Turpentine

If you are using Strasbourg Turpentine, combine it with the oil first and then add the turpentine, combining all the ingredients well together. If using Venice Turpentine, it needs to be warmed in a bain-marie prior to mixing with the oil, because it is too viscous at room temperature. Then add turpentine.

Rectified Turpentine is preferred and is given in this recipe as a standard 1 part. You can use less or more than 1 part according to what your preference in regards to the consistency you want this medium to have. This heavily with turpentine for a lean medium. As given this medium is quite rich in fat and should only be used as such in the upper layers of the painting. Use up to 20% per volume of tube oil colours.

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Darwin #1 Medium

INGREDIENTS BY VOLUME

Consider 1 Part = 100 ml.
1 Part – Raw Cold Pressed Linseed Oil
1 Part – Double Rectified Turpentine
1 Part – Damar Varnish (5 pound-cut)
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Mix the 3 ingredients in a clean glass bottle, shake energetically until all are perfectly blended. Use up to 20% maximum medium per volume of tube oil paints. This medium is fat in this combination. Thin with turpentine for lean layers. Do not add more oil for upper layers, the oil content is high enough in keeping with the fat-over-lean rule.

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Old Masters Medium V

Ingredients:

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1 Part – Fir Strasbourg Turpentine

1 Part – Walnut Oil (Raw Cold Pressed or Refined)

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· Place Fir Strasbourg Turpentine in a clean glass jar (a jam jar is perfect for this).

·Now pour in the Nut Oil, not all at once but in small batches and keep stirring the two ingredients as you pour all the oil.

·Mix slowly and thoroughly the two to combine them into a homogeneous thick and very viscous medium.

About Old Masters Medium

Studies carried out by many academics and artists painters have produced several proposals for the ever interesting quest for the Old Masters Oil Painting Mediums. Of these, of course, some can be considered unlikely, but other authoritative studies should be taken into account.

Oils Studio made some trials on the probability of such mixes and arrived at some interesting oil painting mediums. The recipes presented here have been tested and the mediums have been prepared at room temperature. Some recipes were adapted to comply with easier preparation.

Drying
All 6 Old Masters oil painting mediums discussed should dry within a period of time between 12 hours and 3 days. Drying times depend enormously of the oil paints being used, atmospheric conditions and climate characteristics of the area where you live. You may use a drier to speed the drying process. However, the presence of balsam turpentines imparts a smooth flat glossy finish as the balsams flat out in the drying process. A shortened drying time may not be sufficient to allow the balsam to flatten out completely, so be careful to calculate how long you want the drying time to be.

Both driers below may be used safely in the ratio of 1% up to 5% calculated over the total volume of oil painting medium. To remain 100% safe, an average 3% should be used. Suppose one of the painting mediums above was prepared, making a total
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A drier or siccative may be used safely. We do not recommend cobalt siccatives because these tend to dry the surface leaving a softer under-layer. If you decide to use a drier, use a lead oxides based drier.
The French Manufacturer LeFranc & Bourgeois makes produces 2 distinct driers:

·Brown Courtrai Drier: Prepared with suspended manganese and lead oxides, it is the strongest siccative available. This siccative has gained some bad reputation in the past due to abuse from artists. Used in the recommended doses, it is perfectly safe to employ in oil painting.

·White Courtrai Drier: Prepared with suspended lead oxides, it is less powerful and due to its pale colour, it is to be preferred by many painters. Application rules applying to this siccative (illustrated above) are exactly the same as for Brown Courtrai Drier.
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Both above driers speed up drying times considerably and help drying and stabilising the paint film from the inside out.

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Old Masters Medium III

Ingredients:

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1 Part – Venice Larch Turpentine

2 Parts – Fresh Double Rectified Turpentine

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· Warm the bottle/flask containing Larch Venice Turpentine in a bain-marie, until it becomes liquid and not viscous at all.

·Pour it in a bowl and put the bowl in the bain-marie you used to heat the Venice Turpentine.

·Now mix the Turpentine into the warm Venice Larch Turpentine. The two should react into a thin jelly medium.

· This medium must be applied warm, so keep the medium in the bain-marie as you paint.

About Old Masters Medium

Studies carried out by many academics and artists painters have produced several proposals for the ever interesting quest for the Old Masters Oil Painting Mediums. Of these, of course, some can be considered unlikely, but other authoritative studies should be taken into account.

Oils Studio made some trials on the probability of such mixes and arrived at some interesting oil painting mediums. The recipes presented here have been tested and the mediums have been prepared at room temperature. Some recipes were adapted to comply with easier preparation.

Drying
All 6 Old Masters oil painting mediums discussed should dry within a period of time between 12 hours and 3 days. Drying times depend enormously of the oil paints being used, atmospheric conditions and climate characteristics of the area where you live. You may use a drier to speed the drying process. However, the presence of balsam turpentines imparts a smooth flat glossy finish as the balsams flat out in the drying process. A shortened drying time may not be sufficient to allow the balsam to flatten out completely, so be careful to calculate how long you want the drying time to be.

Both driers below may be used safely in the ratio of 1% up to 5% calculated over the total volume of oil painting medium. To remain 100% safe, an average 3% should be used. Suppose one of the painting mediums above was prepared, making a total
_____________________________________
A drier or siccative may be used safely. We do not recommend cobalt siccatives because these tend to dry the surface leaving a softer under-layer. If you decide to use a drier, use a lead oxides based drier.
The French Manufacturer LeFranc & Bourgeois makes produces 2 distinct driers:

·Brown Courtrai Drier: Prepared with suspended manganese and lead oxides, it is the strongest siccative available. This siccative has gained some bad reputation in the past due to abuse from artists. Used in the recommended doses, it is perfectly safe to employ in oil painting.

·White Courtrai Drier: Prepared with suspended lead oxides, it is less powerful and due to its pale colour, it is to be preferred by many painters. Application rules applying to this siccative (illustrated above) are exactly the same as for Brown Courtrai Drier.
__________________________________
Both above driers speed up drying times considerably and help drying and stabilising the paint film from the inside out.

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Medium 1-1-3

Fat (oily) painting medium recipe. I call it simply 1-1-3. Density of this medium you can adjust with more or less turpentine.

Ingredients By Volume:

1 part Stand oil
1 part Dammar varnish
3 part Turpentine

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1-1-3 Painting Medium

One of the most common medium recipes…

1 part Linseed Oil

1 part Dammar Varnish

3 part Turpentine

…put a couple of drops of cobalt drier

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